Functions for systematically ordering the internal edges of trees.

```
RenumberTree(parent, child, weight)
RenumberEdges(parent, child, ...)
Cladewise(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for phylo
Cladewise(tree, nTip = NTip(tree), edge = tree[["edge"]])
# S3 method for list
Cladewise(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for multiPhylo
Cladewise(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for matrix
Cladewise(tree, nTip = min(tree[, 1]) - 1L, edge)
# S3 method for `NULL`
Cladewise(tree, nTip = min(tree[, 1]) - 1L, edge)
ApePostorder(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for phylo
ApePostorder(tree, nTip = NTip(tree), edge = tree[["edge"]])
# S3 method for list
ApePostorder(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for `NULL`
ApePostorder(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for multiPhylo
ApePostorder(tree, nTip, edge)
Postorder(tree, force = FALSE)
# S3 method for phylo
Postorder(tree, force = FALSE)
# S3 method for `NULL`
Postorder(tree, force = FALSE)
# S3 method for list
Postorder(tree, force = FALSE)
# S3 method for multiPhylo
Postorder(tree, force = FALSE)
# S3 method for numeric
Postorder(tree, force = FALSE)
PostorderOrder(tree)
# S3 method for phylo
PostorderOrder(tree)
# S3 method for numeric
PostorderOrder(tree)
Pruningwise(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for phylo
Pruningwise(tree, nTip = NTip(tree), edge = tree[["edge"]])
# S3 method for list
Pruningwise(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for multiPhylo
Pruningwise(tree, nTip, edge)
# S3 method for `NULL`
Pruningwise(tree, nTip, edge)
Preorder(tree)
# S3 method for phylo
Preorder(tree)
# S3 method for numeric
Preorder(tree)
# S3 method for multiPhylo
Preorder(tree)
# S3 method for list
Preorder(tree)
# S3 method for `NULL`
Preorder(tree)
TntOrder(tree)
TNTOrder(tree)
# S3 method for phylo
TntOrder(tree)
# S3 method for numeric
TntOrder(tree)
# S3 method for multiPhylo
TntOrder(tree)
# S3 method for list
TntOrder(tree)
# S3 method for `NULL`
TntOrder(tree)
```

- parent
Integer vector corresponding to the first column of the edge matrix of a tree of class

`phylo`

, i.e.`tree[["edge"]][, 1]`

- child
Integer vector corresponding to the second column of the edge matrix of a tree of class

`phylo`

, i.e.`tree[["edge"]][, 2]`

.- weight
Optional vector specifying the weight of each edge, corresponding to the

`edge.length`

property of a`phylo`

object.- ...
Deprecated; included for compatibility with previous versions.

- tree
A tree of class

`phylo`

.- nTip
Integer specifying number of tips (leaves).

- edge
Two-column matrix listing the parent and child of each edge in a tree, corresponding to

`tree[["edge"]]`

. Optional in`Cladewise()`

.- force
Logical specifying whether to rearrange trees already in postorder, in order to ensure edges are ordered in the "TreeTools" fashion.

- renumber
Logical specifying whether to renumber nodes such that they increase in number away from the root.

`RenumberTree()`

returns an edge matrix for a tree of class `phylo`

following the preorder convention for edge and node numbering.

`RenumberEdges()`

formats the output of `RenumberTree()`

into a list
whose two entries correspond to the new parent and child vectors.

`ApePostorder()`

, `Cladewise()`

, `Postorder()`

, `Preorder()`

and
`Pruningwise()`

each return a tree of class `phylo`

with nodes following the
specified numbering scheme.

`Postorder.numeric`

accepts a numeric matrix corresponding to the
`edge`

entry of a tree of class `phylo`

, and returns a two-column array
corresponding to `tree`

, with edges listed in postorder

`PostorderOrder()`

returns an integer vector. Visiting edges in this
order will traverse the tree in postorder.

`Reorder()`

is a wrapper for `ape:::.reorder_ape`

.
Calling this C function directly is approximately twice as fast as using
`ape::cladewise`

or
`ape::postorder`

`Cladewise()`

, `ApePostorder()`

and `Pruningwise()`

are convenience
functions to the corresponding functions in "ape".
Single nodes may need to be collapsed using ape::collapse.singles first.
"ape" functions can cause crashes if nodes are numbered unconventionally --
sometimes arising after using tree rearrangement functions,
e.g. `phangorn::SPR()`

.

`Preorder()`

is more robust: it supports polytomies, nodes may be numbered
in any sequence, and edges may be listed in any order in the input tree.
Its output is guaranteed to be identical for any tree of an equivalent
leaf labelling (see `RenumberTips()`

) and topology,
allowing unique trees to be detected by comparing sorted edge matrices alone.

Nodes and edges in a preorder tree are numbered starting from the deepest node. Each node is numbered in the sequence in which it is encountered, and each edge is listed in the sequence in which it is visited.

At each node, child edges are sorted from left to right in order of the lowest-numbered leaf in the subtree subtended by each edge; i.e. an edge that leads eventually to tip 1 will be to the left of an edge leading to a subtree containing tip 2.

Numbering begins by following the leftmost edge of the root node, and sorting its descendant subtree into preorder. Then, the next edge at the root node is followed, and its descendants sorted into preorder, until each edge has been visited.

`RenumberTree()`

and `RenumberEdges()`

are wrappers for the C function
`preorder_edges_and_nodes()`

; they do not perform the same checks on input
as `Preorder()`

and are intended for use where performance is at a premium.

`Postorder()`

numbers nodes as in `Preorder()`

, and lists edges in
descending order of parent node number, breaking ties by listing child
nodes in increasing order. If a tree is already in postorder, it will not
be rearranged unless `force = TRUE`

.

Methods applied to numeric inputs do not check input for sanity, so should be used with caution: malformed input may cause undefined results, including crashing R.

Trees with >8191 leaves require additional memory and are not handled
by `Postorder()`

at present.
If you need to process such large trees, please contact the maintainer for
advice.

`Cladewise()`

: Reorder tree cladewise.`ApePostorder()`

: Reorder tree in Postorder using ape's`postorder`

function, which is robust to unconventional node numbering.`Pruningwise()`

: Reorder tree Pruningwise.`Preorder()`

: Reorder tree in Preorder (special case of cladewise).`TntOrder()`

: Reorder tree in postorder, numbering internal nodes according to TNT's rules, which number the root node as`nTip + 1`

, then the remaining nodes in the sequence encountered when traversing the tree in postorder, starting from each tip in sequence.

Rotate each node into a consistent orientation with `SortTree()`

.

Other tree manipulation:
`AddTip()`

,
`CollapseNode()`

,
`ConsensusWithout()`

,
`DropTip()`

,
`EnforceOutgroup()`

,
`ImposeConstraint()`

,
`KeptPaths()`

,
`KeptVerts()`

,
`LeafLabelInterchange()`

,
`MakeTreeBinary()`

,
`RenumberTips()`

,
`Renumber()`

,
`RootTree()`

,
`SortTree()`

,
`Subtree()`

,
`TrivialTree`

Other C wrappers:
`Neworder`

Other C wrappers:
`Neworder`