AddTip() adds a tip to a phylogenetic tree at a specified location.

  where =[["Nnode"]] * 2 + 2L, size = 1) - 1L,
  label = "New tip",
  nodeLabel = "",
  edgeLength = 0,
  lengthBelow = NULL,
  nTip = NTip(tree),
  nNode = tree[["Nnode"]],
  rootNode = RootNode(tree)

AddTipEverywhere(tree, label = "New tip", includeRoot = FALSE)



A tree of class phylo.


The node or tip that should form the sister taxon to the new node. To add a new tip at the root, use where = 0. By default, the new tip is added to a random edge.


Character string providing the label to apply to the new tip.


Character string providing a label to apply to the newly created node, if tree$node.label is specified.


Numeric specifying length of new edge. If NULL, defaults to lengthBelow. This will become the default behaviour in a future release; please manually specify the desired behaviour in your code.


Numeric specifying length below neighbour at which to graft new edge. Values greater than the length of the edge will result in negative edge lengths. If NULL, the default, the new tip will be added at the midpoint of the broken edge. If inserting at the root (where = 0), a new edge of length lengthBelow will be inserted.

nTip, nNode, rootNode

Optional integer vectors specifying number of tips and nodes in tree, and index of root node. Not checked for correctness: specifying values here yields a marginal speed increase at the cost of code safety.


Logical; if TRUE, each position adjacent to the root edge is considered to represent distinct edges; if FALSE, they are treated as a single edge.


AddTip() returns a tree of class phylo with an additional tip at the desired location.

AddTipEverywhere() returns a list of class multiPhylo containing the trees produced by adding label to each edge of tree in turn.


AddTip() extends bind.tree, which cannot handle single-taxon trees.

AddTipEverywhere() adds a tip to each edge in turn.


tree <- BalancedTree(10)

# Add a leaf below an internal node
node <- 15
ape::nodelabels(bg = ifelse(NodeNumbers(tree) == node, "green", "grey"))

plot(AddTip(tree, 15, "NEW_TIP"))

# Add edge lengths for an ultrametric tree
tree$edge.length <- rep(c(rep(1, 5), 2, 1, 2, 2), 2)

# Add a leaf to an external edge
leaf <- 5
ape::tiplabels(bg = ifelse(seq_len(NTip(tree)) == leaf, "green", "grey"))

plot(AddTip(tree, 5, "NEW_TIP", edgeLength = NULL))

# Set up multi-panel plot
oldPar <- par(mfrow = c(2, 4), mar = rep(0.3, 4), cex = 0.9)

# Add leaf to each edge on a tree in turn
backbone <- BalancedTree(4)
# Treating the position of the root as instructive:
additions <- AddTipEverywhere(backbone, includeRoot = TRUE)
xx <- lapply(additions, plot)

par(mfrow = c(2, 3))

# Don't treat root edges as distinct:
additions <- AddTipEverywhere(backbone, includeRoot = FALSE)
xx <- lapply(additions, plot)

# Restore original plotting parameters